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As a result of industrialism there was a mass movement to urban areas. The movement of people from rural (country) to urban (city) areas is known as urbanization. The cities were not ready for the many new people and were unable to cope with the results.

Some of the results of urbanization included:

1. The creation of slums where the working class lived crowded together in tenements, row houses and boarding houses. Tenements were apartment buildings with small narrow apartments. Often they had no windows and ventilation was poor. There were no fire escapes and no fire extinguishers. Sometimes the walls were covered in newspaper or fabric. Many row houses and smaller tenements were built with wood and other flammable materials. Needless to say it was quite dangerous.

2. Disease ran rampant. Sewers backed up, poor ventilation and overcrowding were the perfect conditions for tuberculosis and other diseases.

3. Fires destroyed homes and there were no professional firefighters, building codes or sprinkler systems to help stop them.

4. De facto segregation divided the cities up into neighborhoods. Blacks, Irish, Italians and Jews each had their own areas.

5. Transportation was inadequate.

6. Sewers dumped raw sewage directly into the rivers. Pollution from factories made the air black.

In time some of these conditions slowly changed. Dumbbell tenements, an improvement from their original designs, had air shafts and windows. Professional fire fighters were hired and sprinklers were made mandatory. Buildings began to be built out of stone, brick and concrete. In New York the first elevated railroad was built. While life in the city was still tough, it did improve.

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