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Social Studies help for American History, Economics and AP Government. There are class notes, numerous Supreme Court case summaries and information on how to write a research paper inside.

Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive President

The actions of the muckrakers and a newly active middle class were heard by the then Vice President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. When the President, a very conservative William McKinley was assassinated, Roosevelt became President. Roosevelt was the son of a wealthy old money family. He was involved in government from when he was very young. It was his belief that the wealthy had an obligation to serve. This led him to government service. He became the Assistant Secretary of War, left to form the Rough Riders and took them to Cuba where he fought in the famous battle of San Juan Hill during the taking of Cuba in the Spanish American War.

Teddy Roosevelt

I. Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive

A. The "Square Deal" - Reforms - Increase in Federal Power, ended Laissez Faire. (Result of Roosevelt's belief in "Noblesse Oblige.")

"Let the watchwords of all our people be the old familiar watchwords of honesty, decency, fair-dealing, and commonsense."... "We must treat each man on his worth and merits as a man. We must see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less.""The welfare of each of us is dependent fundamentally upon the welfare of all of us."

--New York State Fair, Syracuse September 7, 1903

1. Sherman Anti trust Act (Felt trusts should be judged on actions)

2. Mediated Coal Strike

3. Elkins Act (1903)

-Made it illegal for railroads and shippers to offer rate rebates. Railroad had to set rates. They couldn't change w/out notice.

4. Hepburn Act (1906)

-Gave ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates.

5. Pure Food and Drug Act - Passed in 1906 and amended in 1911 to include a prohibition on misleading labeling.

6. Meat Inspection Act (1906)

7. Conservation

-Strengthening of Forest Bureau and created National Forest Service.

-Creation of much national park land.

-Appointment of Gifford Pinchot, professional conservationist to be in charge of national forests.

B. Roosevelt and William Howard Taft

1. Roosevelt did not run for a third term.

2. He was only in his mid fifties.

3. Stayed involved in politics.

4. Became dissatisfied with Taft and ran for a third term with a third party, the Progressive Party, which was later nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party." Bull Moose Party--Nickname for the Progressive Party of 1912. The bull moose was the emblem for the party, based on Roosevelt'sboasting that he was "as strong as a bull moose."


C. Election of 1912

TR is "Dee-Lighted" to throw his hat into the ring of the 1912 presidential election.
Copyright 1997 State Historical Society of Wisconsin

1. Roosevelt runs for the Progressive Party a.k.a. The Bull Moose Party.

2. Republicans split and the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson won

Woodrow Wilson - Progressive President

When Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat won the election of 1912 he received only 42% of the vote. The Progressive candidates; Roosevelt, Taft and Debs totaled 58% of the vote. Clearly America still sought progressive change. Wilson, an educator and the son of a Presbyterian Minister, recognized this and embarked on a program to continue Progressive reform called the "New Freedom."

Woodrow Wilson

I. Woodrow Wilson - The "New Freedom" reforms

A. Underwood Tariff of 1913

-First lowering of tariffs since the Civil War

-Went against the protectionist lobby

B. Federal Trade Act (1914)

-Set up FTC or Federal Trade Commission to investigate and halt unfair and illegal business practices. The FTC could put a halt to these illegal business practices by issuing what is known as a "cease and desist order."

C. Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)

-Declared certain businesses illegal (interlocking directorates, trusts, horizontal mergers)

-Unions and the Grange were not subject to antitrust laws. This made unions legal!

-Strikes, boycotts, picketing and the collection of strike benefit funds ruled legal

C. Creation of Federal Reserve System (1914)

- Federal Reserve Banks in 12 districts would print and coin money as well as set interest rates. In this way the "Fed," as it was called, could control the money supply and effect the value of currency. The more money in circulation the lower the value and inflation went up. The less money in circulation the greater the value and this would lower inflation.

D. Federal Farm Loan Act set up Farm Loan Banks to support farmers.

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