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Social Studies help for American History, Economics and AP Government. There are class notes, numerous Supreme Court case summaries and information on how to write a research paper inside.

How did African American reformers at the turn of the century seek to improve the lives of their people?

While the Progressive movement brought significant change and progress to white Americans it was primarily a movement based primarily in white, northern, industrial cities. The needs of African Americans located primarily in the south also needed to be addressed.


I. The Progressive Movement and African Americans

A. African American Problems

1. Little real wealth

-many southern agricultural tenant farmers and hired hands.

-others remained south near families but had little opportunity.

2. Jim Crow Laws - de Jure segregation

-Plessey v Ferguson still in effect.

3. Black schools were inferior.

4. Political districts were gerrymandered to eliminate black control.

B. Solutions

1. Migration north

-settled in the cities, looking for work but many of the same problems remained in terms of education and opportunity.

2. Church involvement.

3. Beginnings of efforts gained at achieving equality.

C. African American Reformers

1. Booker T. Washington - Click here for more.

2. W.E.B. Du Bois - Click here for more.

3. Marcus Garvey - Click here for more.


Freedom is the participation in power.

-Marcus Tulius Cicero


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