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Social Studies help for American History, Economics and AP Government. There are class notes, numerous Supreme Court case summaries and information on how to write a research paper inside.


The young President brought to the White House a team of people to help him. They were much like himself. They were bright and they had few preconceived ideas about how to run the government. But hey were willing to work day and night. One of the most powerful members of the team was the President's younger brother, Robert Kennedy. "Bobby," as people called him, was John Kennedy's Attorney General.

The Kennedy brothers eagerly plunged into their work. The President amazed people by his habit of reading five newspapers while eating his breakfast. He spoke almost as fast as he read. It was once reported that Kennedy "did everything today except shimmy up the Washington monument."


A. PEACE CORPS--By 1963 about 5,000 Americans, mostly young people, were working in remote villages in Africa, Asia, and South America. The volunteers saw firsthand the joy and heartaches of the villagers. The villagers, in turn, discovered a new kind of American. These were not tourists or people who traveled overseas to make money. They were human beings lie the villagers lived, sharing the same day-to-day problems and pleasures.

B. SPACE PROGRAM--Launched an all out effort in 1961 to lead a man on the moon by the end of the decade.


  • Area Redevelopment Act (1961)--designed to reduce poverty in urban slums and in rural areas such as Appalachia, which stretched from Pennsylvania through West Virginia, Kentucky and could give loans and grants to these areas.
  • Housing Act of 1961--Specifically focused on urban renewal. Much of the money went into building or renovating urban, inner city public housing projects.

D. CIVIL RIGHTS--Supported many attempts to expand democracy to Black Americans. The poll tax (voting tax) by the 24th amendment.



On the more controversial proposals to Congress, Kennedy faced strong opposition from Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats. They formed a coalition (group) to oppose him on such issues. He failed to gain Congressional approval for the following:

1. Tax reduction

2. Federal aid to elementary and secondary schools

3. Medical care for the aged under social security

4. Voting rights and equal treatment for blacks in places of public accommodation. (During the Johnson Administration Congress Passed all these Kennedy proposals)

While Kennedy is remembered as a great foreign policy President, mainly for his success in backing down Khrushchev during the Cuban Missile Crisis, he also experienced a number of foreign policy failures such as:

1. 1961--permitted American trained Cuban exiles to invade Castro's Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. The invasion was crushed.

2. 1961--Nikita Khrushchev walks out of Summit Conference in Vienna after refusing to negotiate with President Kennedy.

3. Initiated U.S. involvement in Vietnam by sending CIA and military advisors to the South.

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