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How did the Cold War start to become "hot?"

As the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union grew it was clear that the US had a decided advantage. The US was the worlds only atomic power and United States policy became of containment had proven to be successful. Stalin felt forced to respond. Stalin acted quickly and decisively to attempt to limit US influence in Eastern Europe and balance the emerging power of the United States.

I. The Cold War Become Hot

B. How did Stalin react to the presence of West Berlin?

1. Stalin Blockades West Berlin in the hopes of either starving out the Berliners and forcing them to leave or provoke a military response.

2. Truman responds with neither action. Instead he airlifts supplies into Berlin. This is known as the Berlin Airlift.

 

C. How did a nuclear arms race begin?

1. Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb in 1949.

2. US detonates its first Hydrogen Bomb in 1952.

3. USSR detonates its first Hydrogen Bomb in 1953

4. US develops highly accurate ICBM's. Soviets also develop missiles but they are neither reliable or accurate.

D. What was the US policy on nuclear weapons use in the early 50's?

1. Eisenhower Doctrine - called for "massive retaliation."

2. Meant that the US was willing to use nuclear weapons in war and that we thought we could win a nuclear war. This is also known as NUTS (Nuclear Utilization Theory) NUTS was utilized as a nuclear policy from the fifties ang early sixties. After the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 US policy shifted to MAD or Mutually Assured Destruction. This policy held that if any side used nuclear power we would both be destroyed. This policy prevailed until the Reagan years of the 1980's when we again began to claim that we could fight, and win, a nuclear war.

3. This doctrine was designed to scare the Soviets... it worked!

E. How did the Space Race Begin?

1. Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957. This was the worlds first orbiting satellite.

2. The launching of Sputnik destroyed the long held American belief in our own technological superiority and led to massive spending on space exploration and the creation of NASA by Eisenhower. The rush is on to send a man into space.

3. The US is the first to send Chimpanzees into space

4. The Soviets are the first to send a manned capsule into space - Yuri Gagarin in 1961.

5. JFK announce that we must land a man on the moon. Beginning of the Apollo project. US land man on the moon in 1969.

6. Soviets develop Mir space station in the 70's.

7. US develops the space shuttle.

F. How did the tension between the US and Soviet Union intensify in the late 50's and early 60's?

1. US Spy U-2 Spy Plane is shot down over the Soviet Union. Even though both sides know the other spies this is an embarrassing moment for the US.

2. In 1961 the Berlin Wall suddenly appears. Kruschev was embarrassed by the flight of East Berliners. Kennedy responds with strength declaring we would never give up West Berlin. He declares "Ich bin ein Berliner." But the wall still stood, a symbol of Cold War tension.


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